Osteoarthritis is the progressive joint degenerative disease, primarily affecting a soft connective tissue known as the cartilages. It is mostly known to be the disease of middle aged or elderly people. Although, it can damage or affect any parts of the body; joints of the hands, knees, hips and spine are commonly affected. Being progressive in nature, it often gets worsen without any conventional way of curing it. Although, staying physically active, managing the weight and other technologically advanced treatment may help to manage the disease.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. As per the CDC survey in the US itself, 26 million people were affected by the end of 2005, out of which 13.9 % were young adults above the age of 25 years and almost 33.9% are elderly people with average age more than 65 years. As per the incidence measured, involving the age and the sex of the individual; Hand OA, Hips OA and knee OA are the most common type. OA is also found to be more prevalent in women than in men.
The studies have thus confirmed that men have 48% higher risk as compared to women. Even in case of hip arthritis, men have observed to be of 36% reduced risk than in females. CDC has as well confirmed, annual death rate of 0.2 to 0.3 deaths per 1, 00,000 population. Thus approximately 500 deaths are attributed to OA per year and the number is increasing every year.
Although, scientists have linked up osteoarthritis as an autoimmune disorder, there are some other common risk factors that can aggravate the condition. Such as
Stem cells are the mother cells that are responsible for developing an entire human body from a tiny two celled embryo; due to their unlimited divisions and strong power to differentiate into all the cells of different lineage. This power of stem cells has been harnessed by the technology to isolate them outside the human body, concentrate in the clean environment and implant back.
Thus, stem cells treatment involves administration of concentrated cells in the targeted area, wherein they can colonize in the damaged area, adapt the properties of resident stem cells and initiate some of the lost functions that have been compromised by the disease or injury.
The different stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different sources of both allogenic as well autologous sources are known to be differentiating into cells of osteogenic origin. Various research taken place worldwide, has confirmed the differentiation potential of stem cells.