Diabetes is the disease affecting the metabolism of glucose to a great extent. The glucose is required by the cells for energy production and normal functioning. This glucose comes in the blood from the food we eat and carried to the cellular level by an important hormone known as the insulin. Once the meal is consumed by the body, it breaks down into the glucose and other nutrients which are then absorbed in the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. This glucose is then transferred from the blood stream to the cells. The diabetes develops when the body either can't prepare insulin or can't respond to the insulin. Diabetes can be mainly differentiated into two broad categories such as Diabetes Type 1 & Diabetes Type 2.
Type 2 diabetes formerly called as non insulin dependent diabetes occurs as a result of body's inability to utilize insulin. It is the most common form of diabetes accounting for more than 90 % of the diabetes cases.
By the end of 2013, estimated deaths due to diabetes were almost 2 million. The epidemiology survey has concluded that more than 80% of the deaths are from low and middle income countries. WHO has projected that diabetes can be the seventh leading cause of death globally by the end of 2020.
The signs and symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes can often develop slowly. In fact for years it can go unnoticed, although some of the common symptoms can be taken as warning signals such as
Stem cells are the mother cells that are responsible for developing an entire human body from a tiny two-celled embryo; due to their unlimited divisions and strong power to differentiate into all the cells of different lineage. This power of stem cells has been harnessed by the technology to isolate them outside the human body, concentrate in the clean environment and implant back.
Thus, stem cells treatment involves administration of concentrated cells in the targeted area, wherein they can colonize in the damaged area, adapt the properties of resident stem cells and initiate some of the lost functions that have been compromised by the disease or injury.
Various data is available suggesting in vitro differentiation of stem cells into insulin producing beta cells. These cells can as well help in creating a microenvironment due to initiate secretion of different immune cells to counteract autoimmunity of the individual.